Begadi Guides

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Begadi Gearbox Guide
Introduction: This guide is a summary of the actual gearbox versions and should illustrate the differences and compatibilites of them.
The core of every SAEG is the gearbox. The air pressure to drive the BB out of the barrel is electrically generated in the gearbox. There are different gearbox versions. The number of the gearbox is not a quality measurement, but a version number.
The internals of the different gearboxes are almost equal, the externals were only adapted to the guns shape. The commonly used gearbox versions are V2 and V3 and the other versions are generally compatible. Some gearbox versions have the same version number but are for different types of guns like the V3 which is available for AK and for G36.
The standard gearboxes all were invented by Tokio Marui, the other manufacturers modified these base designs.

Gearbox versions:
In general the nozzles are specific for the model they were used in, so they are not mentioned as "not compatible" in this guide.

V-1 Gearbox:
- FAMAS

The V1 was the first gearbox ever and is only used in the FAMAS. Tuning parts are hard to find and due to the incompatible motor type stronger tunings are not possible. All parts are in the shell so maintenance is not easy.

V-2 Gearbox:
- MP5 series (except MP5k)
- AR15 series (M4, M16, SCAR, HK416 ...)
- G3 series (SAR41, HK33, FS51 ...)

The V2 gearbox is probably the most produced gearbox in airsoft history due to its use in the AR15 series and there massive available variants. The motor is not integrated in the shell but is in the grip of the gun. Tuning is not easy because everytime you want to test the gearbox, you have to mount the grip. Due to the small length of the gearbox a strong spring is under heavy tension so it can't be build in easily.
V2 gearboxes show a tendency to break off the front, when cold weather is combined with a strong spring. Modern variants are reinforced at the point of break. The cables for the motor are in the grip too, so the right positioning and adjustment of the motor is sometimes exhausting.
There are a lot of V2 variants like the split gearbox by ICS. This gearbox can be fold in two parts where you can change the upper shell very quickly. Beside the ease of maintenance you can adjust the power of the gun to the rules of the actual game.

V-3 Gearbox:
- AK series (AK47, AK74, Galil, RPK, Type56 ...)
- G36
- MP5k
- Steyr AUG
- Sig
- UMP
- MP40

The motor of the V3 gearbox is directly screwed to the gearbox shell, so you can test the gearbox without the need to mount the grip. The V3 gearbox is also longer than the V2 and therefore a stronger spring can be installed much easier.
Sig and MP5k series use a V3 gearbox but the motor is not directly screwed to the gearbox.
The Real Sword Type 56 series use a shortened V3 gearbox (called T2) where piston and sector gear are not compatible to V3 parts.

V-4 Gearbox:
- PSG 1

The V4 gearbox is special, after every shot the spring is pre cocked, so the following shot does not need to tension the spring before shooting. The TM PSG1 is the only SAEG in which this gearbox is used. Incompatible parts: Gears, Spring, Cylinder, Piston, Cylinder Head, Tappet Plate, Motor (Medium Type), Anti Reversal Latch

V-5 Gearbox:
- UZI

The V5 gearbox, like the V4 gearbox, is used only in one gun, the TM UZI. Tuning parts are very rare.

V-6 Gearbox:
- P90 - M1A1 Thompson

The V6 gearboxes are largely V2 & V3 compatible and are as easy to upgrade as the V3 gearboxes. Incompatible parts: Cylinderhead, Tappet Plate, 2 of 6 Bushings (oval instead of round)

V-7 Gearbox:
- M14

The V7 gearbox was developed by Marui especially for the M14 rifle. The motor is not under the shell but shifted to the backside, so it can fit in the rifle stock. The electronics are outside of the gearbox so the disassembly is more difficult than on other gearboxes. Incompatible parts: Cylinderhead, Cut Off Lever, Tappet Plate, Anti Reversal Latch, Spring Guide

V-8 Gearbox:
- Type 89
The V8 gearbox is also especially developed by TM for the Type 89, in generally the V8 is a V2 gearbox which is able to shoot bursts. The special feature is that the bursts are controlled mechanically and not electronically.

When choosing a gun the gearbox version plays a big roll, it should fit the requirements for tuning capabilities and spare part availability. There is no sense to buy a FAMAS and want to upgrade it to M120.

Maintenance:

The many synchronized parts of a gearbox wear with time and should be maintenanced in regular intervals (e.g. every 10000 oder 20000 shots). The higher the power of a gearbox, the more they wear and the shorter the maintenance intervals should be set.

Attention: When disassembling the gearbox the warranty expires !

Possible procedure for maintenance:

1. First the gearbox is disassembled from the gun. Watch for external breakage like e.g. cracks.

2. Next the motor has to be checked, are all cables soldered correctly, is the isolation faultless and are all plugs solidly plugged ?

3. Now the gearbox is disassembled. Attention: The warranty expires here ! You can take photos of each step from here when you first open a gearbox, this makes the assembly easier.

4. First the gears will be checked, when they are worn or some teeth even miss they should be replaced. Brush marks on the gears can be a indication for bad shimming. The pinion gear is forgotten often, because it is not in the shell but on the motor. When the motor is adjusted wrong the pinion gear can be damaged quickly.
Attention: When the gears are removed from the gearbox the shims have to be replaced to the exact same position when putting them back.

5. To test the shimming without opening the gearbox you can prove the tolerance (< 0,1mm) of the gear axles. Are they too loose or dont move at all, a new shimming maybe necessary.

6. The teeth of the piston should be proven, are they only worn slightly (in common the teeth are worn from back to front in ascending order) a replacement is not always necessary. When the teeth are worn badly a replacement should be done. The o-ring on the pistonhead should be checked and changed if necessary.
The sideward rails of the piston should also be checked for damage or heavy wearing.

7. Next is the tappet plate, which should be checked for beginning cracks.

8. The nozzle is checked for cracks and heavy wearing, if there is an o-ring in the nozzle this should be checked too.

9. The springguide should also be checked, is the guide made of metal a damage is unlikely

10. At last the system is checked for air leaks. Extract the cylinder and hold the cylinderhead close with your finger, now push the piston from the other side in the cylinder, is there a strong resistance, there are no air leaks.
Now the nozzle is put on the cylinderhead and the test starts from the beginning, the resistance should be the same.
When there is low resistance or even no resistance there can be different air leaks. When the cylinderhead is not tight with the cylinder you can use teflon tape to seal it. When the o-ring on the pistonhead is worn it should be replaced, when the nozzle is untight it should be replaced by one with an o-ring.

11. When all is checked, the old grease and oil must be removed and everything fresh lubricated. Products for real guns should not be used because they are too aggressive for plastic parts and rubber seals. Only use products which are designed for airsoft use and are based on silicon.
When lubricating you should choose the right amount of grease, insufficient grease puts more stress on the gearbox, excessive grease can travel through the nozzle on the hop up bucking and influence its function.

12. Finally the gearbox is reassembled, watch out, that every part sits on its place firmly. Before the next usage the gearbox needs about 50 shots for the grease to be spread adequate inside the gearbox.

The Gearbox Jam

When the gearbox jams, the gears stand still in an inappropriate position, where the current flow is interrupted. Jams mostly happen in semi automatic mode. In germany full automatic guns are restricted to powers under 0,5J, therefore gearbox jams happen more often than in other countries. If your gun is capable of full automatic fire, or in germany below 0,5J of energy, you can simply switch to the full automatic mode and fire some shots, to fix the jam.
Gear jams are avoidable and do not mean, that the gun is damaged. The warranty does not expire when you fix a gearbox jam, as long as you don't open the gearbox.

Causes for gearbox jams:

- Wrong shimming (most reason)
- Motor to weak
- Battery to weak
- Damaged parts which tilt (piston, tappetplate...)
- Damaged bushings (tilting of the gears)
- Damaged gears (individual teeth broken)
- Damaged gearbox shell (bushings have too much tolerance...)
- Incompatibility of parts

Variations of gearbox jams:

Variation 1:

The first variation winds the spring and a shot breaks, but the gearbox stands still in the exact moment, when the cut off lever is triggered by the sector gear to mechanically interrupt the switch assembly and cut off the current flow.
When the trigger is pulled now the switch assembly is no longer bridged horizontally but vertically pushed apart, so no current can flow. This variation can be recognized by either a "click" when pushing the trigger, or a complete blockage of the trigger.

Variation 2:

In the second variation the trigger was release in the beginning or in the middle of the winding process. Caused by the pre torque the spring is winded almost until the end, but only some millimeters are missing for the sector gear to release the spring and fire the shot.
The current can flow in this variation, because the switch assembly is working normal, but the motor and the battery are not strong enough to wind up the heavily compressed spring without the tightening torque. This variation can be recognized by the windage sound of the motor which suddenly interrupts.
When the trigger is not immediately released, the fuse burns through !

How to fix a gearbox jam

There are different ways to fix a gearbox jam, we introduce the most common:

1. Pulling the ARL

The ARL (Anti Reversal Latch) prevents the gearbox from turning backwards by hooking in a raster in the bevel gear. To get to the ARL you need to remove the motor, depending on your type of gun the grip or the whole grip piece has to be taken of. When looking in the gearbox from the bottom up you can see the bevel gear. Before pulling the ARL you should turn the bevel gear (It only turns in one direction), this can already fix the gearbox jam.
When the jam is not fixed, you have to pull the ARL. A suitable solution for pulling the ARL is the corkscrew of a pocket knife, you can raise enough power to even pull a winded up spring. Other tools can be bended paper clips or small needle nosed pliers.
The ARL is pulled as long as there is no more resistance. Now the bevel gear is turned until the first resistance is palpable. The motor can be reassembled and the jam is fixed.

This method can be used for either variation of the gearbox jam, but the ARL is not reachable in the way described on every type of gearbox. On some gearboxes you can reach the ARL without disassembling the motor (e.g. the T2 gearbox by real sword).

2. Direct current flow

This method bypasses the trigger and switch unit by providing the current directly to the motor. There are some things you have to take care about when using this method to fix the jam savely and without damages. To prevent the motor the used current source should be below 12V.
When using this method a shot can be fired, so the barrel has to be pointed in a safe direction. Though the magazine is removed BBs can still be in the gun !
If possible this method should only be used by 2 persons, one who holds the gun and the other who fixes the jam.
The motor has to be laid open, then the positive pole of the power source and the positive pole of the motor and the negative pole of the power source and the motor have to be connected. To do so you can use an adapter cable which fits the battery and has open ends. When this adapter is plugged onto the battery the ends should never touch, because it can damage the battery.
Once the cables connect the gun shoots fully automatic, just one shot is enough to fix the jam, therefore the cables should be released immediately after the first shot.

This method is only applicable with a variation 1 jam and does not work for variation 2 jams.

On some gearbox versions (e.g. version 2) the motor is not directly screwed to the gearbox shell. When you use this method you also have to hold the motor in correct position. When the motor tilts the bevel or pinion gear can be damaged so this method is not recommended for those gearbox versions.

3. Turning the gears

Both jam variations can be fixed by simply turning the gears. A variation 2 jam is not as easy fixable as a variation 2 with this method caused by the maximum tension of the spring. The variation 1 jam can be fixed, as already described, by turning the bevel gear. To fix variaton 2 jams the sector gear is more suitable because of the bigger area of support. In this case the gearbox has to be extracted from the gun.
Version 3 gearboxes have a little plastic cover behind the trigger, when the cover is removed you can see the sector gear and turn it with a screwdriver.
The sector gear is not reachable without disassembling of the gearbox on all versions (e.g. Version 2).

4. Disassembling

When the gearbox is disassembled, both jams fix themselves, but on a variant 2 jam you should be extremly careful, because the spring is under maximum tension. The disadvantage of this method is, that your warranty expires, when the gearbox is opened.

5. Lifting the cut off lever

The cut off lever cuts of the current flow, when it is lifted and you pull the trigger the gun shoots automatic fire. Like method 2 you should only lift the COL for a short period of time and point the gun in a safe direction. The gearbox has to be extracted from the gun but not disassembled.

6. Anti jam functions

The easiest way to fix a jam is a gun with anti jam function like Real Sword, ICS M4/M16 variations, FAMAS series or L85 series by Star, G&G and Army Code. The ICS split gearbox can fix a jam easily, you just have to fold the gun open and turn the sector gear with the teeth downwards, when you put the halfes together again the jam is fixed. Alternatively the long ARL can be used, which is indicated via the forward assist knob (In germany the ICS guns are not equipped with the long ARL as standard).


Maintenance guide

1. Motor adjustment

The motor is adjusted via the adjustment screw (mostly allen key) on the bottom of the motor cage or the bottom of the grip. To correctly adjust the motor the screw has to be tightened as far as possible. When the trigger is pulled now the gun should scream or not work at all. Now turn the screw slowly outwards and pull the trigger again and again, until the gearbox sounds "round" and screams no more.

2. Shimming

Preamble

There are a lot of different shimming guides out there, this guide is my personal procedure which has proven for me over the last 12 years.

What is shimming ?
When shimming a gearbox you put different shims on the gears to fit them correctly into the gearbox.

When is shimming necessary ?
Shimming is necessary when:

- Components get changed (shell, gears or bushings)
- Frequent gearbox jams
- Gearbox runs unbalanced

What does shimming do ?
- When you shim your gearbox correctly, the maximum area of support is used, which makes the gears last longer.
- The gearbox runs smoother and more quiet
- Correct shimming prevents from other damages

Preparation
- Shimming can only be done in a dry gearbox, the gears, shell and bushings had to be cleaned and any oil or grease has to be removed from them
- The following components have to be disassembled from the gearbox: piston, cylinder, cylinderhead, spring, springguide, tappetplate & ARL.

Required tools
- Screwdriver
- Different shims (available in sets, you need at least 3 different sized shims, small, middle and high)

Procedure

On principle you first use a small shim and test it, is it to low, you take a middle one, is this even to low, you use the highest one. If you need even higher shims you start from the beginning on the high shim.

1. Spur Gear

- You always start with the spur gear, first it is set in the gearbox without a shim and tested, when it scratches on the shell or the bevel gear bushing you start shimming as mentioned above until the scratching is gone.

- Now the upper shell is replaced and the 3 screws which are closest to the spur gear were tightened as much as they are tightened when reassembling the gearbox.

- From the bottom you can now see the gap between the upper shell and the contact surface of the spur gear axle. When there is a big gap (which is common) you can directly set up a high shim and beginn shimming on the second level.

- After the shimming the gearbox gets screwed together as mentioned before and the gap is checked. You can do this from the outside by pushing the axles of the gear through the bushings, or by lifting the spur gear with the screwdriver.

- The tolerance should be under 0,1 millimeter and the gear should move easily. To test the free movement you strike the gear with the screwdriver. It should move freely and overtravel.

2. Sector Gear

- The next gear is the sector gear, you can use the same sized shim that you used under the spur gear. When you use a high quality gearset this should be it, because these sets are often cooridnated.

- When you only change one gear you had to watch for the tolerance between spur and sector gear and the free movement of the tappet plate and the cut off lever.

- Then the upper side is shimmed. Now you can test the free movement by striking the teeth of the sector gear through the cylinder gap. When the gears overtravel 2 times, which can be indicated by the teeth who normally engage the piston, the gears are perfectly shimmed.

3. Bevel Gear

- The last gear is the bevel gear, you have to watch the tolerance to the spur gear, when you use a high quality gear set you have the same easy installation as before.

- The upper side of the bevel is shimmed like mentioned before.

- To get the ARL to use the full area of contact you may have to shim the ARL too. Be sure that the shims are below the ARL spring and not between the spring and the ARL.


Finally you test the free movement of all gears as mentioned when shimming the sector gear. When the test is positive you grease the gearbox and put all components back. The adjustment of the motor should be rechecked at this point.
Begadi Battery Guide
Introduction: Until 1991 airsoft guns were powered by gas or spring, when Tokio Marui, after 7 years of development, introduced the first AEG (automatic electric gun), the famas. AEGs displaced the existing guns and quickly become the standard in airsoft gaming. In germany the guns were converted to shoot only semi automatic, because of the existing gun law. The term SAEG (semi automatic electric gun) was established for these converted guns.
Today many variations of SAEGs are offered and the batteries also developed in the past years. With this guide you should get the basic knowledge about existing battery types and how to choose the right one for your application.



A 7,4V 1200mAh LiPo battery (top) in comparison to a 9,6V 1600mAh NiMh battery (bottom).

Caused by the high discharge current of LiPo batteries, both types run a gearbox at nearly the same speed, though the NiMh battery has 2,2V less current than the LiPo. Another advantage of the LiPos ist the small size. Basics:

The power of every battery is measured in three values.

The current is measured in Volt (V). The higher the value, the faster the gearbox can run and stronger springs can be winded up. NiCd and NiMh batteries with 8,4V are often sold together with SAEGs, but for permanent semi automatic fire these batteries are too weak. This results in a higher risk for gearbox jams and therefore they should not be used.

The capacity, measured in milliampere hours (mAh), shows how long the battery can be used without recharging. The capacity is restricted by the manufactured size of the cells.

The discharge current, shown in the c-coefficient (C), stands for the residual capacity and the time in which a constant discharge current can be delivered. 25C is the minimum discharge current LiPo batteries should be able to offer.



A 7,4V 1200mAh LiPo battery in a real sword type 56-2. Due to the folding stock in this SAEG there is not enough space for big batteries. The small LiPos are ideal for guns with limited space.

Battery Types:

NiCd (Nickel Cadmium) these are the oldest batteries used in airsoft guns, due to the high-grade hazardous cadmium they are no longer allowed to be sold within the EU since 31.12.2016.

NiMh (Nickel Metal Hydride) have the same structure as NiCd batteries, but instead of the heavy metal cadmium they consist of nickel metal hydride. NiMh is not only environmental friendly, it offers a higher capacity with the same size. The self discharge on NiMh batteries is with 30% per month higher than on NiCd. Since 2006 there are NiMh batteries with lower self discharge which are almost equal to NiCd batteries (15% per month).
Another disadvantage of NiMh batteries is the high internal resistance, which causes a slower response behavior on your gun than NiCd batteries. By raising the number of cells and therefore the current this disadvantage can be equalized.
NiMh batteries are more temperature sensitive than NiCd cells, which can be used under sub-zero temperatures without any restrictions. NiMh should not be loaded or used under the freezing point. Temperatures above 30° celsius can also damage the battery, therefore they should not be loaded to fast, because they are heating up to much. Overcharge and deeply discharge are another point in which NiMh batteries are more sensitive than NiCd.



A 9,6V 1600mAh NiMh battery in “triple stick” design, this type can optimally be used in crane stocks. Due to the high amount of cells, in this case 8, NiMh batteries can be put together in many different variations so the available space can be used to its full capacity, but the size is always limited to the size of the cells that are used.

LiIon (Lithium Ion) have a clearly higher inner resistance than NiMh and NiCd batteries and therefore are not suitable for airsoft applications.



This 7,4V 1200mAh LiPo is a extra small model, optimally designed for AK series where the battery can only be put under the top cover.

LiPo (Lithium Polymer) batteries are the further development of LiIon batteries and today the standard in airsoft applications. Compared to LiIon batteries LiPos use a solid electrolyte, where a casing around the battery is no longer needed. Therefore the batteries are lighter and can be produced in arbitrary designs.
LiPos can offer a high amount of current consistent over a long period of time, while NiMh and NiCd cells de-energize relatively fast, LiPos offer nearly the same current consistently until the end.
The biggest disadvantage of LiPos is the sensitivity on overcharge, deeply discharge, heat, low temperatures, shocks and short-circuits. With sinking temperature the inner resistance rises. Different loaded cells can destroy the battery, so they are equipped with a balancer connector. High-class chargers are able to distribute the current over the single cells. Charging an LiPo without balancer is highly disadvised.
Due to the not existing casing on LiPo cells a small burn caused by over charging can easily become a big fire because of the direct air supply. Therefore loading LiPos is advised only in a special fire-proof bag and additonal on fire-proof ground.
To prevent from deeply discharge you can use a LiPo saver, which monitors the current of the battery and switches it off, when the current of one single cell is under 2,9V. The LiPo saver also gives an optical or acoustical signal to the user to prevent the battery from damage.



A LiPo-Saver, on the left you can see the balance cable from the battery. The negative pole (black cable) on batteries with only 2 cells (e.g. 7,4V LiPo) must be plugged in the "COM-Port" of the LiPo Saver. The BAT3 pin is not in use then. This saver not only gives optical and accoustical alert, when the current is too low, but also shows the actual capacity of the plugged in battery.

The LiPo saver connects easily to the Balancer plug of the battery, so they can monitor each cell separately. On longer storage a LiPo cells should be loaded between 3,7 – 3,9V, the maximum current of 4,2V should not be exceeded. Loading should only be done with 1C, which means a 1200mAh battery should be loaded with 1,2A of charge rate which can be adjusted on the charger.
The usage of batteries with high current can affect internal parts of the gearbox like for e.g. the tappet plate or the switch assembly. To prevent these parts from damaging they should be replaced by reinforced ones. A MOSFET is a reasonable extension, you can read more about this in the mosfet guide.

When the following security rules are obeyed a LiPo is not more dangerous than a conventional battery.

• Always use a charging bag, made of fire-proof material on fire-proof surface
• Never charge the battery with more than 1C.
• Loading temperature should be between 0 and 45°C.
• Discharge temperature should be between -20 and 60°C.
• Do not use LiPos under the freezing point.
• Charge only on high-class chargers with balancer plug.
• Use a LiPo saver to prevent your battery from deeply discharge.
• To prevent the battery from downfall, pad it in the gun and fix it as good as possible, the padding can also serve as isolation against cold.
• Use high current plugs only (Dean or XT60-plugs)

LiFePo (Lithium Iron Phosphate) batteries use a liquid electrolyte and have a much lower inner resistance than LiIon batteries, which makes them perfect for high current applications, like airsoft. They are an optimal compromise between NiMh and LiPo batteries.
One of the biggest advantages of LiFePo batteries is the possibility to use high loading rates. 3C is no problem, some batteries can be charged to 95% of there capacity in 20-30 minutes. A balancer is not necessary but recommended. A high thermal load is not possible with LiFePo batteries, which makes them perfect for rough use.
The operational conditions lie between -45 and 70°C. All lithium batteries cause voltage dips under 5°C but these do not involve capacitance loss. The self discharge is around 3-5% per month, therefore the LiFePos can be stored in any condition, except fully charged or discharged.



Size comparison betwenn a LiFePo 9,9V 1100mAh (top) and a LiPo 11,1V 1300mAh (bottom).

The biggest disadvantage of LiFePos is the small energy density. The cells are much larger than LiPos, which limits the field of application in airsoft guns a little. The rated voltage of 3.3V per cell can make a 9.9V LiFePo battery to weak for the selected application and with the next higher possible voltage, which is 13,2V, the battery can already be to strong.

Myth Memory Effect:

The so called memory effect was discovered by NASA personnel. They determined that a NiCd battery which was installed in a satellite, only had as much capacity as it discharged and charged in one earth revolution. These NiCd batteries were an old design with sintered electrodes. This design was used until the 90s, but this effect on modern NiCd batteries is not as high as it was back then.
The memory effect can be reversed by charging and discharging the battery to the end point voltage, but this sets down the usable load cycles.

NiMh have no memory effect, but due to not fully discharge before charging the so called battery inertia effect can take place. This does not set down the capacity of the battery, but the emitted current. Just like the memory effect, the battery inertia effect can be reversed by charging and discharging cycles.

Lithium batteries use complete different materials than NiCd and NiMh batteries, both effects are not possible with them. Regeneration and maintenance techniques should never be used on Lithium batteries because they can only harm them.

Connectors:

Most airsoft guns are delivered with so called Tamiya connectors, which are available in small and big format. They come from the RC model building and are named after a famous model-building company which invented them. For NiCd and NiMh cells they are sufficient. The cables are crimped on metal pins which are plugged in a plastic socket. A fluke prohibits the pin from falling out.
This structure is accident sensitive especially when the connectors are improper pulled by the cables. On high current connectors the cables are soldered to the pins, which are permanently attached to the socket. Therefore they are less accident sensitive than the tamiya connectors and recommended to all airsoft applications.



Different connectors, from left to right: XT60 connector, DEAN connector (both capable of high currents), Tamiya small, Tamiya big (not capable of high currents and more accident sensitive)

When soldering a connector, you should remember that the heat which is transferred from the soldering iron to the cable can damage an attached cell !
Begadi GBB Guide
Gas Blowback Guide

The first airsoft guns were gas guns, like todays paintball markers, they were driven by CO² or compressed air, which the players carried in a bottle on there back. The bottle was connected with the gun through a hose. Today these guns are called "classic guns" and became collectible items which achieve high prices on the collectors market.
In 1991 tokio marui invented the AEG (Automatic Electric Gun) which conquered the airsoft scene in the next few years and displaced the gas rifles. The pistols did not share the fate of the rifles, the AEPs (Automatic Electric Pistol) could not displace the gas pistols. Today the GBB still is the most seen backup gun on the field.
The GBBRs (Gas Blowback Rifles) get more and more popular during the last years, due to there realistic handling and den blowback effect. With HPA (High Pressure Air) also the gas bottles return to the airsoft battlefields.

The different gas systems:

NBB (Non Blowback):

NBBs are all gas guns which do not use gas to create a blowback effect. The reload is done either manually (shotguns and sniper rifles) or semi automatic via a double action trigger (mostly pistols, seldom rifles).

Advantages:

Low gas consumption
less temperature sensitive
Quiet
low priced

Disadvantages:

High trigger resistance on semi automatic guns
less realistic
No slide stop
Mostly poor magazine design

The biggest advantage is the low gas consumption, on some CO² pistols you can fire 400 shots with only one 12g cartridge. The components of NBBs are less stressed, so NBBs can be made of plastic. Therefore they do not transmit coldness to the magazine and can be used in low temperature conditions.
NBBs are more quiet than GBBs due to the non repeating slide and therefore are ideal for the use of a silencer. They are cheaper to produce so you can get a good NBB for not more than 100€. NBBs often use a built-in gas tank which is located mostly in the grip, so the magazines are often unaesthetic narrow or even built-in the gun.

Semi automatic NBBs use a double action trigger, so the trigger pull is higher than on GBBs. On some NBBs the slide is moveable but has no function, on some it is not moveable and suffers on realism. Due to the system there is no slide stop on NBB semi automatic guns so you only know your gun is empty, when it dry fires.

GBB (Gas Blowback):

GBBs are all guns which use a part of the gas to repeat the slide (blowback effect). The cocking always is automatic therefore all GBBs are semi automatic guns.

Advantages:

Recoil
Realistic handling
Slide stop
Energy partly adjustable (NPAS)
Easy disassembly

Disadvantages:

High gas consumption
Temperature sensitive
Loud
High wear
Service intensive
Magazine costs
Magazine capacity

Due to the blowback effect GBBs are handled like real guns. When the gun is empty the slide stop holds the slide back until a new magazine is inserted.
GBBs are easy to disassemble, mostly like the real gun. Therefore the GBBs are loved by the players and are the most used sidearm on the field.

GBBRs (Gas Blowback Rifle), have the same realism as the GBB pistols. They are more and more seen on the fields and have the same advantages and disadvantages as GBBs. On some newer GBBRs a NPAS (Negative Pressure Adjustment System) is built-in or can be upgraded to. Through a NPAS the power can be adjusted, the lower the temperature is the lower the energy should be adjusted because the more gas is used, the faster the magazine cools down.
The gas consumption on GBBs is higher than on NBBs because as already mentioned before a part of the gas is used for the blowback effect. Due to the higher rate of metal used on GBB magazines they are more temperature sensitive and tend to the cooldown effect. The noise on GBBs is much higher than on NBBs, a silencer still works great but the level off silencing is not as high as on NBBs.
GBBs wear much faster than NBBs, because of the more moving parts, therefore they must be serviced more often.

HPA (High Pressure Air):

HPA guns are connected via a hose (Remoteline) with a compressed air bottle. The bottle is attached to the players gear or directly to the gun.

Advantages:

Almost temperature independent
High rate of fire
constant FPS
Adjustable power
Low priced AEG magazine compatibility

Disadvantages:

Bottle must be carried
Hose may disturb
With leaks playing is impossible
Bottle can not be refilled anywhere

HPA systems can be used in pistols and rifles, for they work with compressed air they can be used in any environment with a high rate of fire and constant FPS.
Through a regulator the energy can be adjusted very fast to the users needs or game regulations. HPAs on rifles can use the low priced AEG magazines instead of expensive gas magazines.

HPAs are a step backward into the time before the AEGs changed the airsoft world. The bottle has to be built-in the gun, which influences the style of the gun or it has to be carried on your gear. The bottle has to be connected to the gun with a hose which can disturb the player, but everyone has to find this out for himself.
When there is a leak on the HPA system the complete bottle can discharge, without a spare bottle or the possibility to fill it, you can't use the gun, even when the leak is fixed. To fill the bottle a compressor with 200-300bar is needed, these compressor cost about 2000€. You can get the bottle filled in any diving shop, paintball shop/field or if you have good connections at a fire department. The filling is not expensive, sometimes a tip is enough.

Different gases:

There are a lot of different gases which can be subdivided in 4 categories:

Weak gases:

e.g. Begadi Light Gas, Begadi Maintenance Gas, Predator Gun Gas 144a

These gases are realtively weak and can be used in GBBs with plastic slides and NBBs. The maintenance gas has a high percentage of silicon and as the name implies it is used for maintenancing the seals inside the gun. It is not intended for shooting and can maintenance all sorts of gas guns (except HPA).

Universal gases:

e.g. Abbey Predator Ultra Gas, Abbey Brut Sniper Gas, Ultraair Power Gas

These gases are universal and can be used in NBBs and GBBs with plastic or metal slide. Predator brut sniper gas has no silicon percentage which gives full performance even for semi automatic guns but therefore the seals have to be maintained in shorter periods of time. Predator ultra gas is intended for use in winter.

Power gases:

e.g. Begadi Green Gas, Begadi Power Gas, Swiss Arms Extreme Gas, H&K Power Gas, Walther Airsoft Gas, Elite Force Airsoft Gas

These gases are powerful to very powerful and should only be used in full metal guns, they are partial intended for use in winter.

Extremly powerful gases:

e.g. CO², Red Gas

CO² is intended for use in winter and is very powerful, in pistols it is mostly to powerful for short distances. There are some CO² pistols which have the same power as green gas. Red gas does not comply with the EU security guidelines and therefore is no longer available in the EU.



To get the right gas for your gun you can either check out forums and lock what kind of gas other players use for the same gun or you can start with the weakest gas and power up until you have found the right gas. The right gas is achieved when the slide completely repeats, the slide stop always works and no gas is leaking during the shooting.

Wintergas:

Wintergas is often used in the description of different gases, but at temperatures below 10° celsius gas guns do not work properly no matter what kind of gas is used.

Cooldown effect:

The cooldown effect occurs on low temperatures or on high rates of fire. The gas cools down the magazine, the colder the magazine gets, the longer it takes for the gas to change from liquid to aerially condition, power and precision loss is the effect. When the magazine gets even colder the sealings are tightened and the gas can discharge at once.
A beginning cooldown effect can be recognized by the temperature of the magazine, the colder the magazine is, the higher the chance of a cooldown gets. The colder the ambient temperature the higher the chance of a cooldown. To prevent from cooldown you can carry the magazines close to the body to keep them warm and only shoot at a low rate of fire. Also the quality of the seals and the interals can play a role when it comes to cooldown.

When the cooldown effect on CO² guns takes places you have to be very carefully, when the whole CO² catridge discharges some parts of the gun can freeze over. These parts should not get in contact with bare skin.

Generally temperatures below 10°C are a problem for gasguns, due to the changed aggregate state and the changing expansion of the gas it comes to precision loss and malfunctions. NBBs are better protected from cold conditions due to their plastic body and fewer metal parts, while the high amount of metal parts on GBBs work as a catalyst.

General criteria when choosing a gas gun:

Players:

For players the pistol should not be stronger than 1 joule, cause these guns are used on short distances and should not be a unnecessary risk for the opponent players. By now CO² pistols under 1 Joule are available, but on some events CO² pistols are still banned. As a player the camouflage aspect should be on your mind, a chrome polished gun is senseless.

Training:

For training you can use any type of gas gun, even strong guns.

AIPSC:

When it comes to AIPSC the guns are often tuned technically and optically, you should keep in mind that there are enough tuning parts available for the gun you choose. Beside the gun must conform to the AIPSC regulations.

GBB or NBB:

The advantages and disadvantages have already been demonstrated, you should choose what is more important for you.

Maintenance:

All gas guns have to be maintained regularly, special lubricants are available and mostly are based on silicon. Common gun oil should not be used for gas guns, because the ingredients can destroy the sealings.

Parts which do not have sealings, like for example the trigger meachnism can be handled with gun oil. Dirt gets sticked to oil and grease therefore you should not use it excessively.

The sealings on the magazine (inlet valve, outlet valve and magazine nozzle seal) should be greased or oiled well. On CO²guns the sealing where the CO² cartridge connects to the gun should not be forgotten.

When magazines are stored there should be a small amount of gas in the magazine to keep the sealings under pressure, which protects them from drying-out. On CO² guns this is not necessary because the gas comes directly from the cartridge and not from a buffer storage. CO² guns should never be stored with a connected full cartridge because the high pressure can destroy the sealings.

Maintenance gas can be used directly after using the gun, when extensive care is not possible. Just fill the magazine with the maintenance gas and make some shots. For CO² guns there are special maintenance cartridges.

Naturally gas guns have to be cleaned from dirt and sand to guarantee a flawless function.
Begadi Magazine Guide
Introduction: With this guide we want to show the different types of magazines and which advantages and disadvantages they have. Also we want to show how to take care of the magazines for a proper function. In this guide we only handle with AEG magazines because they are the most common and the basic construction of spring or gas magazines is the same.

The different types of magazines

Generally there are 3 types of magazines, low caps, mid caps and high caps. Caps is short for capacity. Low, mid and high show the capacity of the magazine.
Magazines are not only divided by the capacity but by the basic construction which offer different advantages and disadvantages.

Low Caps

In low cap magazines the BBs are arranged directly behind each other, relating to real firearms the low caps can be referred as "single stack" magazines.

Typical capcities:
M4: 45 - 85 BBs
AK: 70 BBs
G36: 50 BBs
MP5: 50 - 70 BBs

Advantages:

- No tiliting of BBs
- less dirt sensitive
- Sturdy construction
- low priced
- Less maintenance requirements
- No BB rattling
- NO winding necessary

Disadvantages:

- Low capacity - Loading tool required

Due to the single stack construction low caps are less dirt sensitive than other magazines. Nearly all sorts of BBs can be shot with them. The simple construction makes them low priced and they do not have to be maintenanced often, mostly wiping of the dirt is enough.
The BBs are under spring tension, therefore the BBs do not rattle inside. LCs can also handle rough treatment.

The low capacity is a disadvantage of low caps, the magazines has to be changed more often and you have to carry an adequate amount of magazines with you. LCs can be loaded one by one by hand, but using a loading tool makes sense, although you have to carry it with you.

Real Caps

A special kind of low cap is the real cap, they simulate the capacity of the real gun which on common guns is 30 shots. Often they are made of plastic and are available very cheap, they have the same advantages and disadvantages as low caps but are only used in hardcore milsim games where you often have to use them.

Mid Caps

In mid cap magazines the BBs are arranged staggered, relating to real firearms the mid caps can be referred as "double stack" magazines.

Typical capcities:
M4: 100 - 200 BBs
AK: 110 - 180 BBs
G36: 100 - 140 BBs
MP5: 95 - 120 BBs

Advantages:

- Higher capacity than low caps
- No BB rattling
- NO winding necessary

Begadi BB Guide
The projectiles that are shooten from airsoft guns are called BBs. There are two different theories where the name comes from. The first airsoft guns were fed with the balls from ball bearings, so BB is the acronym of ball bearing.
Another theory is that BB is the acronym for "baby bullet".

BB calibers

BBs are available in the following calibers: 4,5mm, 5,5mm, 6mm and 8mm.


4,5mm BBs are commonly made of steel and are used only in airguns, but not in airsoft guns.
5,5mm BBs are only used in cheap spring airsoft guns.
6,0mm BBs are the standard caliber in the airsoft world, most airsoft guns use this caliber.
8,0mm BBs are mostly used in repeating gas guns (shotguns, sniper rifles...).

BB Types

Plastic BBs

Due to the more and more precise bio BBs and the regulations of most airsoft fields, plastic BBs are seldom used these days. They only make sense when shooting on paper targets or at Indoor AIPSC. Plastic BBs are manufactured in very high quality and are very precise.

Bio BBs

Bio bbs are degradeable, they decompose themselves after some time. When storing them you have to keep them dry and in a dark place. In the last years bio BBs become more and more precise and now are equal to plastic BBs. On most airsoft fields bio BBs are required, so bio BBs are what you have to take care about.
Due to the more complicate production bio BBs are more expensive than plastic BBs.

Tracer BBs

Tracer BBs are fluorescent, in combination with an airsoft tracer*, tracer rounds can be imitated. Tracer BBs are also available in biodegradeable variants.

*An airsoft tracer is a dummy silencer with a photo sensor. The sensor recognizes the BB in the barrel and flashes it which than glows for some time.

Non Traceable BBs

This kind of BBs are very dark, mostly black, the advantage is that the enemy can not see the BB in flight and so he can't yield the BB. Another advantage is that the position of the shooter can not be determined easily. The disadvantage is, that the shooter himself can't see the BB and so can't correct the trajectory of the next shot.

Paintball BBs

Even in 6mm caliber there are BBs filled with color. A lot of manufacturers point out that the use of paintball BBs terminate the warranty. Due to the thin outer layer the BBs are very vulnerable to burst inside the magazine or the gun, which can gum up the hop up unit and make the gun inoperative. These BBs should only be used with lowcap magazines and guns without an hop up unit.

Glass BBs

Glass BBs are the most precious BBs on the market. For playing they are totally inappropriate, because splinter on a wire mask may have catastrophic sequences.

Metal BBs

Metal BBs are made of steel or aluminium and are very precise. Due to the hardness they are not intended for playing.

BB Weights

BBs are available in many different weights, it is important to use the right BB weight for the gun they are used in. A 0,20g BB in a 3 joules sniper rifle is equal senseless than a 0,80g steel BB in a < 0,5 joules spring pistol.

Which BB for my gun?

The BB weight is not only limited by the gun or your personal preference, but also on the momentary wind regime. Light BBs fly faster and can achieve higher ranges, but they are more vulnerable on wind and loose speed faster than heavier BBs.
Today you have a lot of BB weights to choose, so you can approach the perfect BB weight for your gun and your play style in small steps.

BB weights can be divided roughly in the following categories:

up to 0,3J = 0,12g
0,3J - 0,7J = 0,20g
0,7J - 1,0J = 0,25g
1,0J - 1,5J = 0,28g
1,5J - 2,0J = 0,30g
from 2,0J = 0,40g

For chroning the gun 0,20g BBs are always used, so the results can be compared easily.

Like the weight the caliber of the BBs is slightly different, mostly it is smaller like for example 5,94mm. So the BBs can be used in tuning barrels as well. There are also BBs which caliber is over 6mm so they can not be used in some tuning barrels, this has to be considered before buying BBs.
Begadi Mosfet Guide

Explanation MOSFET

A MOSFET (Metal-oxid-semiconductor field-effect transistor) is an electronical component, which is used for regulating current flow. A MOSFET has at least 3 connectors:

1. Gate
2. Drain
3. Source

The function is easy, the connector 3 (source) rests the source power (e.g. 7,4V from a 2S LiPo), the MOSFET detains the power from flowing to the connector 2 (drain), as long as there is no certain current on connector 1 (gate). This control voltage is much lower than the source power.

Use in airsoft

On AEGs the battery is directly connected to the switch unit. The switch unit interrupts the current flow to the motor as long as the trigger is not pressed. When pushing the trigger the contact is closed mechanically. Due to the high voltage which rests on the switch unit and their small contact surfaces the internal resistance is very high and produces also heat. Powerful batteries can melt the the switch unit or deform the contact surfaces.



When using a MOSFET the main voltage no longer rests on the switch unit, but flows from the battery over the MOSFET directly to the motor. After installing a MOSFET the trigger only sends a signal which commands the MOSFET to start the main current flow. The voltage for this signal is very small, so the cabling from the switch unit to the gate connector of the MOSFET can be realized with small cables.



The motor is connected to the drain connector of the MOSFET and the battery is connected to the source connector.

Advantages

Due to the low inner resistance of the MOSFET by comparison to the conventional switch unit cabling the motor turn faster. The response characteristic improves and on full auto AEGs the rate of fire increases. The chance of gearbox jams decreases. Another advantage is the lower stress on the switch unit which prevents the deformation of the contact surfaces for example and reduces the switch unit as source of errors.

Warranty

When installing a MOSFET the gearbox hast to be opened. The opening of the gearbox voids the warranty. To retain the warranty our repair shop offers a MOSFET installation service. -Link-

Limitations

When choosing a MOSFET beside the size, position of installation and features the technical data has to be observed. Always watch for the manufacturers recommendations relating to the max. installable spring. Also the maximum current (measured in A (ampere) the MOSFET can take has to be considered. A micro MOSFET normally can take less current than a standard MOSFET.

Active Brake

The actice break breaks the motor after a cycle to make the gears always stop in the same position. The motor is stopped immediately after a shot by a counter current flow fed from the MOSFET. The advantage is that the spring is at no time partially cocked, which causes unnecessary stress on the gearbox. On some MOSFETs the active brake can be fine tuned to harmonize it to the individual gearbox. Due to the counter current flow the motor heats faster, an inappropriate Setup (e.g. a very long gear ratio) or a wrong active break setup can make the gearbox jam.

Additional features

Beside the main features some MOSFETS are programmable and than offer a huge amount of additional features, e.g.

- MilSim functions (Simulated magazine change, sniper delay, ammuntion restrictions...)
- Different fire modes (semi automatic, full automatic, freely programmable bursts)
- Pre-Cocking (The spring is pre cocked after every shot -> faster firing)
- Current protection (Warns or cuts the power directly off when the voltage of the battery is low)
- Overvoltage protection (Protects the electronics from current peaks)
- Overheating protection (Protects the electronics from high temperatures)

MOSFET Types

Regular: Standard MOSFETs mostly offer a big amount of different features and are often freely programmable. On regular MOSFETs the dimensions of the MOSFET has to be considered every time.

Examples: Gate NanoAAB, Perun AB

Drop-In: DropIn MOSFETs replace the switch unit completly and therefore do not need extra space. They often use a microswitch as trigger and also have a lot of different features.

Examples: Gate Titan, JeffTron Basic, Jefftron Processor Unit V2 & V3, Airsoft Systems ASCU

Micro: Micro MOSFETs are very small and are used when there is only a small amout of space available(e.g. AEPs, SMGs....). Due to the small size they have low to none additional features and cant take high current.

Example: Xcortech XET304, Jefftron Micro, FPS Softair Micro